Iran, the second-largest country in the Middle East, is located on the Persian Gulf coast in south-west Asia. Earlier it was called Parsia or Persia, but in the year 1935, the country was named after Iran. In the direction of civilization, Iran occupies many ancient and very powerful places. Many types of ancient architecture like qanat exist in this country.
Today, we are going to talk about an Iranian technology that can be understood from how rich Iran was in the past in knowledge and science. Today is about 3,000 years ago. It is good to say that Iran is not a plane, but rather a friend. There are many mountains and mountains around Iran. Those mountains came along the Persian Gulf and on the banks of Oman and gradually rushed to the edge of the Great Desert. The desert of Iran is quite arduous and dry. Within the country, there is a total of three million twenty thousand square kilometers desert, which is about one-fifth of Iran’s total area.
It is astonishing that Iran was a very developed and influential country in the midst of the desolate desert and mountains. There are still many ancient signs of Iran, which is enough for them to be proud of the world as a nation today. There are 21 places and historical monuments in Iran so far in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Very recent UNESCO has been ranked in the list of 11 Qanats and Our discussion today is in the context of Qanat.
Qanat is basically an amazing discovery of Ancient Persia. This is the name of a mechanical system of intellectual thinking and intellectuals of that time. Earlier it has been said that there are many deserts spread around Iran, many desserts. Needless to say, the prevalence of water in these desert was very high. Public life was almost upset due to lack of water. This revolutionary discovery was made in the will of the Iranian ruler and by the hard work of some technicians. At the time, the whole of Iran’s face was changed to provide water to the main city by digging the canal down the desert from the foot of the desert.
The simplest thing seems to be, actually, it was much more difficult than it was. The realization of the whole plan was time-consuming, as it was time-consuming, so was expensive. Because most of the mountains of Iran are rock stones. There was enough speed to cut rocky soil. The distance from the mountain to the main city was also very much.
But the then Emperor of Iran started to ignore those barriers. Another hole in the desert was made by a deep hole in a certain distance. They are called channels in English. In the channels, people entered and built a narrow canal. The canals spread across the city. This water was pure because the water flowed through the pebbles. This water was used to eat, cook, even irrigate. There was also a provision for water storage in these channels as well as to maintain water.
However, there was a danger during the preparation of how the system would work properly. Because of this method worked properly at that time, the civilization of Iran, which was formed between the desert and the desert, has been able to present itself in the world today.
In the heart of Iran, the oldest and long canal system is seen in the city of Jark. But the most famous of the counting is in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2007. Later, 11 more Qanat, including ten, was officially placed on the World Heritage list in 2016. Another eleven Qanat are cassabegs, gonabath, baladeho, zarachs, hasam abad-e-mishori, Ibrahim Abad, Bhajvan, Mojad Avad, The Moon Goohariz, Kasem avad and Akbar avad.
Although the start of Kanat is in Iran, the process of this process is seen in different countries. The use of this technology is seen in the desert areas like Morocco, Algeria, Libya, and Afghanistan. However, the first step to start the work was quite difficult. The soil was to be dug through the mountain, it was made a tunnel. Until the water was found, the rocky soil had to be dug. So, there was not so much modern equipment now, as much as the soil from the hammer can be dug. Techniques such as a bamboo or wood-shaped wheelchair were used to get to the tunnel. The people would have been taken to the tunnel, and the soil from the bottom was raised.
When the water was found, another tunnel would have been cut, which went on the other side of the hill. The horizontal tunnel was made in such a way that it could have a water-flow system. The middle channels were used so that the movement of the wind in the water could be ensured. The channels were so deep that there was no fear of pollution, due to excessive heat, there was no risk of water drying.
The water was so clear and pure that the people of the city could freely drink that water. The last step of the canals was to save water. People could collect water according to their needs if they wanted. Using this water, there is a great change in the agricultural sector in Iran. As a result, there are plenty of people’s employment arrangements. Many rich people arrange for water supply from the main channel in exchange for money.
Iran’s water conservation system was also excellent and visually impaired. Such a wonderful setting was ‘Ab Anbar’, which means the public well. There were some minarets around the well, within which the outer air entered inside. And the original well was covered in a dome shape so that the wind could play inside. At that time the water was always cool in the well.
This framework of the creation of Kanat is not only efficient scientific system, it is also quite environment-friendly. An official from UNESCO said that the amount of water flow in the canal would save at least 800 megawatts of electricity use.
But now there is a lot of anxiety that has given rise to the Kanat system. Because the need to keep the Kanata alive is regular maintenance, which requires a lot of money. With the increase in Iran’s population, the quantity of water supply is also decreasing. Many of these cantas have been working very well till now, but some of them have become a cause for concern for the locals. Due to lack of adequate maintenance, some cantas are being stopped. A team from UNESCO has assured full support for the maintenance of these tunnels. According to them, this is not just an ancient system, but it is a historical monument that all of us should retain. Perhaps the efforts of everybody will flow with water again, thousands of years ago, the man created this wonder.
Ending Words of Qanat
From 3 to 4 thousand years or so ago, experts in the desert looked at a documentary that experts from the very depths of the desert dug the caps and thus used to cover one another with the underground canal. It was developed from the time of ancient Egyptian civilization. At that time, there was a lot of agricultural work in that area. A lot of wheat was grown and these canals were constructed to carry the Nile water in the field of agricultural work, the canal or underground water system. This rock-built canal has given the power of sustaining people in many ways for thousands of years. The matter is really amazing!